Although generally taught as a transitive verb, despertar is sometimes used intransitively with the same meaning; this is generally limited to literary or formal style, but there are some exceptions . There is much debate as to whether the pronominal form of verbs like despertar is in some way reflexive. For example, when it means espabilarse, there may be agency involved, with the subject acting upon itself. In the imperative both forms are common.

-El niño (se) despertó del coma cuando estaban a punto de desenchufarle

-Desperté de madrugada [Sounds more formal]

-Despertó sobresaltado

-Se han despertado ciertas sensaciones dentro de mí [Pasiva refleja or pronominal??]

Despierta!/¡Despiértate! — Wake up!

-Como no despiertes, se te van a adelantar [Espabilar]

-Voy a tomarme un café, a ver si me despierto un poco [Espabilarse; agency??]

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